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Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie
Publication date: 2016-09-30
Acta Sci. Pol. Formatio Circumiectus 2016;15(3):3–19
The paper presents the results of soil research conducted in the area of Agricultural Experimental Station in Prusy, which allowed to determine the cause of occasionally occurring excessive soil moisture of the arable land. Four soil pits were made as part of the project, from which samples for laboratory analyses were taken from each soil horizon. Basic physical and water properties were assessed, as well as permeability and soil retention capacity. On the basis of the results analysis the prevailing soil type in this area was determined as eutrophic brown soils, chernozems and deluvial black earths. Regarding their kind these are homogenous loess soils with granulometric composition of clay silts. The soils have considerable potential of water retention, however it cannot be fully utilized because of low permeability of the top layer of the soil profile causing exclusion of the deeper horizon levels from water retention. Porosity, particularly of the top layer of the soil profiles should be bigger, because the structure where it constitutes about 50% is regarded as optimal. Heavy silt soils occurring in this place are characterized by a high water capacity and reveal a big swelling, therefore in result of heavy precipitations they store too big amounts of water, become less permeable and undergo plastication. In order to improve the soil air and water regime, it is recommended to use unsystematic and partial drainage with accompanying agri-reclamation measures.