The ecosystem services of the elements of the fortress landscape in Warsaw fortress in the context of a contemporary city
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Katedra Ochrony Środowiska i Dendrologii, Instytut Nauk Ogrodniczych, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa
Katedra Architektury Krajobrazu, Instytut Inżynierii Środowiska, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa
Submission date: 2023-12-08
Final revision date: 2024-02-28
Acceptance date: 2024-02-28
Publication date: 2024-06-25
Corresponding author
Justyna Jastrzębska   

Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego
Acta Sci. Pol. Formatio Circumiectus 2024;23(2):11-24
  • Despite conservation constraints, there is a possibility to introduce modern functional solutions within the Warsaw Fortress while preserving its value as a historic spatial complex. Research results clearly indicate that military objects within the Green Ring of Warsaw, including Warsaw Fortress itself, have not been fully utilized for nature and forestry education as well as tourism.
Aim of the study:
The contemporary elements of fortress landscape in the city can be an incredibly important component of the cultural landscape, green infrastructure system, and the natural system of the city (NSC). Due to their specific organization in space, their role in city structures is linked to providing ecosystem services in all aspects. Unfortunately, very often elements of the fortress landscape are destroyed due to improperly chosen patterns of use. The presented article focuses on the analysis of the functioning of fortress objects in terms of ecosystem services, with a primary emphasis on their functioning in the city’s natural system and their role as tourist attractions, using the example of Warsaw Fortress.

Material and methods:
The background for the analysis of Warsaw Fortress includes objects created in a similar time frame in Europe. In total, 34 objects were analyzed. An analysis of these objects was carried out in terms of ecosystem services. An author’s comparison system was created for this assessment, based on scoring. In the further part, the study characterized Warsaw Fortress from a historical, spatial, natural, and ecosystem perspective. Survey research was applied to understand the reception of fortress objects and their use.

Results and conclusions:
In the summary, emphasis was placed on the high cultural, natural, and ecosystem value of such objects, highlighting the necessity of their protection and the appropriate selection of patterns of use.

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